Eosinophilic Oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic condition that has seen a rapid increase in cases worldwide, posing a significant burden to both patients and healthcare systems. Identifying risk factors for the disease is crucial for practitioners and patients alike.

A recent case-control study in Denmark has explored whether the use of antibiotics or acid suppressants by mothers and infants is associated with an increased risk of developing EoE.

The findings from this study offer noteworthy insights and have significant implications for healthcare practices.

Key Findings

The study included 392 cases and 3637 controls, all born between 1997 and 2018 in Denmark. 

It found that both maternal and infant use of antibiotics are associated with a higher risk of developing EoE.


- Infants who had any use of antibiotics had a 40% increased risk of developing EoE.
- Infants with three or more antibiotic prescriptions had an 80% increased risk.
- The frequency of maternal antibiotic use was similarly associated with increased risk, especially when used during the third trimester or in the first six months after birth.

In addition, the use of acid suppressants also emerged as a significant risk factor:
- Any use of acid suppressants in infancy was linked to a significantly increased risk of EoE.
- For maternal use, having three or more prescriptions was associated with a substantial increase in the risk for her offspring developing EoE.

The study adds weight to the growing body of evidence that suggests the judicious use of antibiotics and acid suppressants, especially during the early stages of life.

Exposure during early life appears to be a crucial period for potential risk and offers the greatest opportunity for risk mitigation. This information can help healthcare practitioners make informed decisions about medication use during pregnancy and infancy.


The findings of this study indicate that maternal and infant use of antibiotics and acid suppressants are associated with an increased risk of developing Eosinophilic Oesophagitis.

It's important for healthcare practitioners to consider these findings when prescribing these medications, especially during early life—a critical developmental period. 

This study also reinforces the need for further research to establish guidelines on the prudent use of these medications to minimise the risk of EoE and other potential health issues.

Why This Study is Important for People with Eosinophilic Diseases

Understanding the potential risk factors for developing eosinophilic oesophagitis is vital for those already grappling with eosinophilic diseases, as it can inform lifestyle and healthcare choices early on.

For families with a history of eosinophilic conditions, these findings can be particularly enlightening. Knowing that antibiotics and acid suppressants could heighten the risk allows individuals and healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of these medications more judiciously.

In the long run, this awareness could contribute to preventing new cases or mitigating the severity of existing conditions, leading to improved management and potentially better patient outcomes.

However, it's crucial to note that while these findings are significant, more research is needed to understand the extent of these associations and their implications fully. 

Read more about Early Life Risk Exposures As Risk Factors For Non-EoE EGIDS

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